quarta-feira, 17 de fevereiro de 2010

Annotated Bibliography

Unit 1 - Activity 1 [Cooperative Freedom]

UC Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning, supervised by Professor Morten Flate Paulsen, we are working on the Theory of Cooperative Freedom.

On this subject, Professor. Morten wrote several texts, of which I would highlight the edited in 2008:

Morten Flate Paulsen, Cooperative Online Education, in Seminar.net - International journal of media, technology and lifelong learning Vol. 4 – Issue 2 – 2008 [in http://seminar.net/index.php/volume-4-issue-2-2008-previousissuesmeny-124/100-cooperative-online-education] accessed 15 February 2010

This article tells us that cooperative learning seeks to develop VLE's that allow students to have freedom within learning communities online.

Is a series of educational and administrative challenges, as well as the importance of transparency in cooperative learning.

The author begins by noting that cooperative learning is based on three pillars: voluntary participation, but attractive and promotion of individual flexibility, and by affinity to promote community learning.

Another very interesting idea of this paper is that transparency improves the quality of education for three reasons: to know that others will see the work makes people excel more, because we see how the others work, it makes that learn from them, and, finally, because it learns from the feedback what others give.

This article opens up new perspectives on how e-learning, one study seems to be very isolated, can be transformed into something very socialized and learning communities very effective. In my view, even more effective in teaching.

The same author, Morten Flate Paulsen had dictated in 2003 a book entitled Online Education and Learning Management Systems, with free Web

Morten Flate Paulsen, Online Education and Learning Management Systems, [http://home.nki.no/morten/index.php/norsk-meny/artikler/mine-powerpoint/doc_download/8-online-education-and-learning-management-systems.html] accessed 15 February 2010

This book is a chapter entitled Cooperative Freedom: An Online Education Theory. Then, the author refers, first, the theories of distance learning: theories of autonomy and independence; theories of industrialization, and theories of interaction and communication.

It then presents the Cooperative Theory of Freedom, which clearly distinguishes what is "cooperative" and what is 'freedom'. The following is a description of the six axes of implementation of this theory: freedom of time, freedom of space, freedom of pace, freedom of the medium; freedom of Access; freedom of content.

Finally, the chapter concludes with a Discussion of Freedom, Flexibility and Cooperation.

In this paper, I highlight the six lines of analysis theory of cooperative freedom.É wise and prudent balance of these variables that can make the most of teaching Web 2.0 tools.

To deepen the understanding of this theory, I find out more about andragogy.

I began by explaining the concept of andragogy, which had as theorist Malcolm Knowles.

In the NJIT [http://web.njit.edu/~ronkowit/teaching/andragogy.htm] acessed 15 de Fevereiro 2010, states that adult education must:

- Move from dependence to self-orientation;

- Take advantage of its accumulated learning experiences;

- That the adult is ready to learn when it wants to take on new roles;

- And when they want to solve problems and apply new knowledge immediately.

Serguey I. Zmeyova, Andragogy: origins, developments and trends, in INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF EDUCATION, January 1998, volume 44, issue 1 [http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001545/154584e.pdf#154636] accessed 15 February 2010

In this paper, the author states that the systems of adult learning must take into account:

- The preponderance of self-directed learning, it is the main way how adults learn;

- Activities should be cooperative, and between teacher and student, but also among students, from planning to evaluation of the process;

- Should be used for experiential learning, where all students experience is used as a source of future learning;

- Individual learning needs to be addressed through personalized plans that point to the achievement of concrete objectives and meeting the special educational needs;

- Learning must be systemic, ie, with a great consistency between objectives, content, methods and means of learning, and assessment of learning outcomes;

- The adult learning should be organized as part of their living environment that is, it must point to the needs of the vital importance to the individual, in keeping with the various fields in the daily life of an adult;

- There must be an update of learning outcomes, that is, the adult immediately see its applicability;

- Is learning elective, where students have the freedom to choose the objectives, contents, forms, methods, sources, methods, terms, time, place, evaluation and teacher;

- Must finally be an awareness of learning, which is demonstrated by the conscious approach by both the student as the teacher of all the factors and procedures in the learning process, and awareness of the importance that each of its activities holds.

Bearing in mind that e-learning is a modality education, in my view, very dedicated to adult learning, these lines of action are to be taken into account. Moreover, because this is the experience of the adult and its existential context, enables a more meaningful learning, so most satisfactory and effective.

Cooperative Learning

Anura A. Gokhale, Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking, in Journal of Technology Education Volume 7, Number 1 Fall 1995 [http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/jte-v7n1/gokhale.jte-v7n1.html] accessed 15 February 2010

This article seeks to ascertain the effectiveness of collaborative learning.

To this raises two questions:

1 - Will there be a significant difference in achievement on a test comprised of "drill-and practice" items between students learning individually and students learning collaboratively?

2 - Will there be a significant difference in achievement on a test comprised of "critical-thinking" items between students learning individually and students learning collaboratively?

It is proved that yes, that is effective, including through the development of critical thinking through discussion, clarification of ideas and evaluation by peers.

For collaborative learning to be effective, the teacher must see education as a process of development and growth of learning of the student. The teacher's role should not be to transmit information, but serve as a facilitator of learning.

Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of capacity use various learning activities to improve their understanding of a story. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of learning. (Cf http://www.ed.gov/pubs/OR/ConsumerGuides/cooplear.html)

But what is the difference between cooperation and collaboration?

Ted Panitz, A Definition of Collaborative vs Cooperative Learning, in Deliberatons (25 Jun 2005) [http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/deliberations/collaborative-learning/panitz-paper.cfm] accessed 15 February 2010

The text differs, explaining that collaborative learning is a personal philosophy, not just a technique. It happens when people work in groups, respecting the specificities of each member.

The underlying premise of collaborative learning is grounded in the consensus of all members of the groups to cooperate, not compete.

Cooperative learning is defined as a set of processes that help learners to interact together to achieve a specific objective.

Unit 2 – Activity 1 [Online Teaching Techniques]

Ana Amélia A. Carvalho (Org), Manual de Ferramentas Web 2.0 para Professores. Ed. Ministério da Educação, 2008 [http://www.erte.dgidc.min-edu.pt/publico/web20/manual_web20-professores.pdf] accessed 15 February 2010.

In this lengthy document, which contains 240 pages deals with several Web 2.0 tools that can be used by teachers.

The Web is seen as a platform, where everything is easily accessible and to publish online no longer requires the creation of Web pages and know them hosted on a server.

This document has nine chapters, which shows a variety of tools, with the aim of allowing teachers and educators to its inclusion in the educational context. Thus, in each chapter is made contextualization of each tool, explains how to create an online space and addresses to their use in educational practices.

The chapters address some tools to use teaching methods:

- Blog, YouTube, Flickr and Delicious;

- Podcast and use the Audacity software;

- Dandelife, Wiki and Goowy;

- Google Toolbar: Page Creator, Docs and Calendar;

- PopFly - as editor of mashups;

- Web 2.0 and Mobile Technology;

- Virtual Environments and Second Life.

The idea that permeates this book is that the Web is easy to produce work collaboratively, since most of the tools of Web 2.0 allows more than one author, which facilitates collaborative creation.

The Web has become increasingly a source of content to teach and learn. Also, writing is no longer limited to text, integrating multiple formats has become increasingly easy. In his blog can include a link to a web site, provide an image, insert a YouTube video.

It may seem that this book has little reflection. may be, but has a very alargadod and tools, how to use them and their educational use.

George Siemens, The Art of Blogging - Part 1. Overview, Definitions, Uses, and Implications, in Elearnspace (December 1, 2002) [http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/blogging_part_1.htm#implications] accessed 15 February 2010.

In this article, George Siemens writes about the pedagogical use of blogs.
It points to some pedagogical implications of the beneficial use of the blog:

- Fostering the fringe - ideas are evaluated based on merit - not on source of origin.

- Filtering - ideas with merit are filtered through various blogs. Significant thoughts or posts receive multiple-links and spread viral-like across the blogosphere.

- Multiple perspectives - one-sided perspectives of newspapers are replaced by passionate debates exploring virtually every facet of an idea or concept.

- Barrier elimination - society is about barriers - actual or unspoken. For example, I don't run in the same circle as Bill Gates - a socio-economic barrier (at the absolute minimum!). In society, this generally means that I do not have the benefit of Mr. Gates' wisdom...blogging, however changes that. Opportunities now exist to hear regular thoughts from people like Ray Ozzie, Mitch Kapor, and Larry Lesig.

- Free flow - any idea can be expressed...and accessed by any one. The process of blogging separates good ideas from poor ideas. The process itself has built in quality control - try that in traditional media!

- Real time - discussions and interactions happen right NOW. Waiting for tomorrow's newspaper or radio program seems like an eternity compared to real time blogging.

- Links and connections - the complexity of an information heavy society requires specialization. Yet specialization is futile if a process is not created to link specialties. Blogging serves this purpose extremely well. Disparate fields of interest and thought are brought together (and dissected) in the machinations of bloggers.

George Siemens, The Art of Blogging - Part 2. Getting Started, "How To", Tools, Resources. in Elearnspace (December 6, 2002) [http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/blogging_part_2.htm] accessed 15 February 2010

In this article I highlight the advice is given on how to write to blog:

- Start. As stated earlier, blogging is best learned by blogging...and by reading other bloggers. So...start.

- Know your motivation. Why are you blogging? What do you hope to achieve?

- Link. The heart of blogging is linking...linking and commenting. Connecting and communicating - the purpose of the Internet.

- Experiment. Developing a writing style is an evolutionary process. Try different approaches and formats until you find one that fits your message, audience, and personal motivations.

- Use life and your experiences as your "idea generation" file.

- Get an opinion. Then express it.

- Express your personality...let your humour, your perspective on life, and your values shine in your writing.

- Post regularly. This is important - readers drop off/lose interest with irregular blogs (syndication and aggregators allow blog readers to stay in touch with infrequently updated blogs - more on that in the section "Extending Blogs").

- Keep writing clear and concise. Avoid jargon...but utilize the unique aspects of the medium (visual, links, sound). Focus on communication (function) before form.

- Write for a reason, not recognition. Most bloggers have small audiences. Satisfaction is derived from the writing process, not the audience response.

May seem that this article is already in 2002, is already outdated. Rather, amtem all actualdiade and have the advantage of very neat ideas on how a blog can be used as a learning tool.

The blog allows for cooperative learning, transparency and, consequently, the creation of good learning communities.

Several authors, Renot Brazilian magazine, is available in various work on new technologies and education. July/2009 Vol. 7 Nº 2 [http://www.cinted.ufrgs.br/renote/] accessed 15 February 2010

In Renot Brazilian magazine (July 2009) is available in various work on new technologies and education.

In this publication is a rich collection of texts useful to reflect on the techniques of teaching online.

If one side has description of experiences in other prospective studies is that much help to reflect and build thinking on this issue.

Take some of the topics covered:

  • Production Process Video-school
  • In the airwaves: producing and conveying new knowledge to the students of adult education
  • The Webquest activity as an aggravator of Education Curriculum
  • Implementing Agent-Based Domain PAT2Math Intelligent Tutor System
  • Visual Realism for Interactive Environments and Tools for Aid to Education
  • Using computer simulation as a teaching strategy: a case study
  • DIGITAL TV: A Tool for Education
  • Skills: challenges for students, tutors and teachers in Distance Education
  • Understanding Mediation Tutor Distance
  • Pedagogical, educational environment, curriculum and teaching aspects: relevant criteria in the evaluation of educational software
  • Distance Education and Organizational Learning: An Analysis of Value and Possibilities
  • Factors that influence the dropout of students in a free course
  • Panoramic photos education: the use of Hugin as a tool of creation and construction of meaning and visual arts
  • New paradigms in teacher's knowledge of Distance Education
  • Significance of the processes of communication and interaction: concepts dialogic of elderly residents in an institution of long-term
  • An experiment to understand how the emotional aspects can be recognized in virtual learning environments
  • Management Elements for Distance Education: a study from the Critical Success Factors and the Resource Based View
  • Collaborative management of educational content
  • Use of tools such as Strategic Support Knowledge Management in Education
  • Media in Education: effective management practice for a qualified teacher in DL
  • Establishing theoretical points of convergence between Projects Teaching-Learning and Digital Technologies Network
  • Interaction with Affect: Learning in Virtual Learning Environments
  • Investigative activities with computational resources in the study of numerical sequences
  • Delving into C: drive an online learning for the study of complex numbers
  • Learning of geometry through interactive animations
  • Learning of Mathematics in Virtual Environments: the ROODA Exact as Possible
  • Virtual Interaction for Learning Mathematics
  • Video and Action: mathematics in the solution of mysteries
  • Application of Games and Simulation as Tools for Education and Traffic Safety
  • MP3 of the formation of hypertext
  • Collaborative Writing in digital culture: tools and possibilities for knowledge construction in network
  • Interactive Multimedia: principles and tools
  • Hiperhistoty to assist the child in the 2nd year of elementary school in the process of ortografy
  • Learning disabled (m-learning) in the teaching and learning: reflections and possibilities
  • M-Learning Web 3.0: Management System Learning Objects for Mobile Devices
  • Moodle Mobile Learning Engine (MLE - Moodle): validation of the features in distance learning course using mobile devices
  • A proposed model of interoperable Web interface, digital TV and mobile devices
  • Training teachers to use technology: a mosaic of ideas and emotions
  • Emancipatory teacher assessment: validation of a tool with the faculty of Computing UFPA
  • Analysis of the undergraduate course in Business Administration from the perspective of complex adaptive systems
  • Development of recommendations Accessibility and Usability for Virtual Learning Environments for User Oriented Elderly
  • Analysis of the alignment between national and international context with respect to the elements organizational learning / knowledge management / information technology: a survey by the Journal Portal CAPES
  • The virtual student: a workshop as a learning experience semi-presence
  • Teaching strategies, planning and construction of learning objects for instructional use
  • The Field Multiplicative from Formula (-1): developing digital learning objects and learning strategies of operations with positive and negative numbers
  • Learning Objects in Early Childhood
  • Learning objects for Teachers
  • Guidelines for the sequencing of instructions in a learning object
  • A proposal for a Learning Object using the Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  • Pedagogical Architectures for Distance Education: the construction and validation of a learning object.

Unit 3 – activity 1 [Transparency in Online Education]

Transparency in Cooperative Online Education [accessed January 5, 2010]
by Chritian Dalsgaard and Morten Flate Paulsen
in The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Vol 10, No 3 (2009)

While one might think otherwise, social networks are not new systems of learning management.
But if we take into account the principle of freedom cooperative, these sites have very good potential. Allow a special form of communication and interaction with all the pedagogical potential. This potential is transparency and awareness that students have to be part of a community.
The use of a research study conducted by NKI Distance Education underlies and justifies the claims.

In my opinion, this article has the merit of bringing together a number of innovative ideas and very assertive about online education transparent.Wins special value, from a concrete experience which the authors have a profound experience.

Social networking sites: Transparency in online education [accessed January 5, 2010]
by Chritian Dalsgaard
in http://ncom.nordicom.gu.se/ncom/fbspretrieve/148036/Social_networking_sites_Dalsgaard.pdf (six pages)

They enable and promote international collaboration students, teachers and the rest of the community. They have the potential to facilitate transparency between the students, allowing each one to go see and overseeing the work of others.
Further, the center of learning, with social networks, is the individual and their issues / problems.

"The pedagogical potential lies within developing social networks, in which students share their individual or group activities. The potential is to support transparency through a combination of personalization and socialization, sharing personal tools within social networks (Dalsgaard 2006). The web service del.icio.us is a fine example of the combination of personalization and socialization. Del.icio.us is a social bookmarking service, which enables people to collect their bookmarks on a webpage. Initially the service supports individual organization and use of bookmarks. However, the bookmarks are made available for everyone on the web, which means that they are shared. Students can use similar personal tools to organize their work, collect literature, write notes, brainstorm, develop ideas and thoughts, write assignments, etc.. Sharing these tools with other students through networking supports transparency and consequently awareness among students "(p.5)

In my opinion, and even social networks can be viewed or some as a mere entertainment, the author addresses the question of a completely rigorous pertinet and potentiates a quality education.

Cooperative Online Education [accessed January 5, 2010]
Morten Flate Paulsen
in Seminar.net - International journal of media, technology and lifelong learning
Vol. N – Issue N – 20NN

In this paper, Prof. Morten presents his theory of the Cooperative Online Education.
In this context, inserts an item on the Transparency Supports Cooperation.
Highlights three advantages in the quality of learning:
- Preventive quality improvement, because we are prone to provide better quality when we know that others have access to the information and contributions we provide
- Constructive quality improvement, because we may learn from others when we have access to their data and contributions
- Reactive quality improvement, because we may receive feedback from others when they have access to our data and contributions

Read the text of the prof. Morten, relating mainly to the theory of cooperative freedom associated with individual flexibility, made his writings and theories brings up to become clearer, more workable.

Principles for Improving Online Tranparency, Quality
[accessed January 5, 2010]
Christopher Hill

in http://www.facultyfocus.com/?p=8431 (20/10/2009)

In this paper, the author presents a series of very useful principle to promote transparency in online education.

#1 Show Up and Teach The necessity of this statement is borne of the misimpression that the online class “teaches itself.” Since most of the course is already authored and designed for online delivery, instructors may believe they simply need to serve as the proverbial “guide on the side” as the students navigate the learning system. Not true!

#2 Practice Proactive Course Management Strategies — The online instructor can help create a successful learning experience by practicing proactive course management strategies such as monitoring assignment submissions, and communicating and reminding students of missed and/or upcoming deadlines.

#3 Establish Patterns of Course Activities — Although the online classroom environment provides tremendous flexibility of time and place of study, establishing and communicating a course pace and pattern of work can aid both instructor and student, and alleviate confusion around how the course operates.

#4 Plan for the Unplanned — For those small or not-so-small occasions when “life happens,” having a strategy for informing students of these changes can go a long way to maintaining course continuity.

#5 Response Requested and Expected — Timely instructor feedback is essential for the online learner to manage their learning experience. Instructors are expected to respond to student inquiries within one business day.

#6 Think Before You Write — Most experienced online instructors can relay a variety of stories about a dialogue with a student that went awry due to a misinterpretation or misunderstanding of the intended message. Take special care to be as clear and concise as possible.

#7 Help Maintain Forward Progress — Students in the online classroom rely on the timely return of assignment and exam grades in order to maintain positive forward progress in their studies.

#8 Safe and Secure — Using the institutionally supported learning management system provides increased degrees of security and confidentiality and keeps “institutional business” within the appropriate confines.

#9 Quality Counts — Instructors need to establish strategies for addressing the quality of the online learning experience, including content resources, instructional design strategies, and systems performance.

#10 (Double) Click a Mile on My Connection — As with many aspects of the online classroom, the technological infrastructure plays a critical role in determining student and instructor satisfaction.

In this brief text, the author draws the attention of quite clearly, how muitoos organizational issues and help design and promote the transparency and quality.

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